The concept of using an implantable device to manage arrhythmias and heart failure started over 50 years ago. Since then, we have seen these devices improve patient outcomes from bradyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. These devices are now standard of care in the management of patients and include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or combination devices. The future may hold expansion of the indications for these devices, with careful examination of the outcomes of today's patients. In addition, there is very exciting new technology that may further advance the management of arrhythmias and heart failure.
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