Substantial progress in the treatment of atherosclerotic complications – in particular in secondary prevention – has led to a significant reduction of recurrent cardiovascular events. This has been through the use of pharmacological strategies including lipid-lowering drugs such as statins, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting ensyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, along with the introduction of early percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome with consecutive application of dual antiplatelet therapy.

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